Let’s learn Japanese positional perticles!! Part.1 ~「に」・「へ」・「を」~


Japanese article is here; https://japaneselanguagesalonbymikapanda.com/learn-japanese-postpositional-perticle-1-2185

At first

Hello, this is MIKA!

The theme of this article is “Positional perticles” which all of you love♡

「に」「で」「を」「の」「も」「は」「が」「から」「まで」……there are so many, then can you use them correctly!?

I think most of you are not good at using them, so let’s review with me!

助詞(Joshi; Positional perticle)「に」


The simplest one is 【Time+に】. There are some verbs which we put after that;

①【Time】に起(お)きます。: (I) wake up at …

②【Time】に寝(ね)ます。: (I) go to bed at …

③【Time】に行(い)きます。: (I) go to there at …

④【Time】に到着(とうちゃく)します。/来(き)ます。: (I) arrive/come there at …

⑤【Time】に始(はじ)めます。/始まります。: (I) start/(It) starts at …

⑥【Time】に終(お)えます。/終わります。: (I) finish/(It) finishes at …

【Year, Month, Weekday, Date】+に

Then, we also use 「に」after a year, month, week, and date.


「私は1992年(せん/きゅうひゃく/きゅうじゅう/に/ねん)に生(う)まれました。」:I was born in 1992.





However, we can’t put 「に」after them;「去年(きょねん)」「今年(ことし)」「来年(らいねん)」「先週(せんしゅう)」「今週(こんしゅう)」「来週(らいしゅう)」「昨日(きのう)」「今日(きょう)」「明日(あした)」and so on.

In addition, this sentense is originally「私は去年日本へ来ました。」.


As usual, on your textbook, 「~へ行(い)きます。」is treated as the correct expression.

However, 「~に行きます。」is more popular than 「~へ行きます。」for Japanese, so please remember that.

That’s why both of them are correct.

And then, some verbs like 「~に引(ひ)っ越(こ)します。」(I move to ~.) and 「~に留学(りゅうがく)します。」(I go to study abroad.) which express “Moving” need 【に】before them. Don’t forget it!


In addition, I want you to pay attention that there is also 【に】 before 「います。」「あります。」which express the exist at some places.

「~がいます。」is for something which is living, and 「~があります。」is for something which isn’t living.



Next, I’ll tell you about 「を」.

It’s put after 【Object】 of the action.

For example, in this case,

「ハンバーグ」is put before「を」, that’s why 「ハンバーグ」is【Object】.

In this case, 「ボロネーゼ」is the【Object】.

So, the verbs which use「を」is so many like them;

①【Object】を+食(た)べます。: (I) eat ~.

②【Object】を+飲(の)みます。:(I) drink ~.

③【Object】を+勉強(べんきょう)します/学(まな)びます。: (I) study ~.

④【Object】を+見(み)ます。: (I) watch/look at/see ~.

⑤【目的語】を+読(よ)みます。:(I) read ~.

⑥【目的語】を+書(か)きます。:(I) write ~.


Have you already studied「あげます」and「もらいます」?

Most of you don’t like this section, no?

But, this expression exists in all of the languages, so you can do it with thinking calmy!

Anyway, I’ll explain about this sentence; the subjet is「田中(たなか)さん」, and the verb is 「あげます」.

And, this type like the sentence has two 【Objects】!!

The first 【Object】is【Person】, in this case it’s 「佐藤(さとう)さん」.

The second【Object】is【Thing】, in this case it’s 「花束(はなたば)」.

Put 「に」after the【Person】, as the first 【Object】.

And put「を」after the 【Thing】, as the second【Object】.

Because of that, in this sentence, 《【女の子=人】+に【プレゼント=物】+を》as the same way.


In the case of 「もらいます」, the position of the subjet and the【Object=Person】will be changed as 「あげます」. Be careful!


In this case, the order of words is the same.


The opposite of 「借ります」is 「貸(か)します」.


《【Person】に【Object】を教えます。》; the order of the words is also same.

【Person】is who are studying, and 【Object】is which they study.


《【Person】に【Object】を送ります。》; the order of the words is also same.

However, if the meaning of 「おくります」is “give it as a present”, we don’t use「送ります」but 「贈(おく)ります」!


In this case, remember it just like that; 「【Person】に電話をかけます。」.

Final comment

How was it?

I wish this article helps you to understand 「に」,「へ」, and「を」.

However, there are more positional perticles in Japanese, aren’t there?

Next, we learn about 「で」and「が」!  See you at that time♪